This giude was adpoted from a workshop held at Science Hack day 2017 link
Git is code versioning standard. There are many git hosting services available: GitHub, GitLab, BitBucket, Visual Studio Team Services,…
With git you can have your code safely on a remote server, ready to be accessed by whomever you grant access. With the proper use of git all previous versions of your documents are saved and available.
On Linux, chances are that git command line interface is already installed. On Windows and Mac computers I recommend you download git tools. You can open a bash terminal with right click in your preffered folder and clicking
Git Bash Here.
Create new project. It is recommended that you include a
README.md file in your repository (like this one) that gives a description of your project.
You can write the
README file using the Markdown descriptive language.
First let us clarify the difference between local and remote repository. Remote repository is the code that is stored on remote server like GitLab server at ETH in our case. Local repository is the repository containing code on your personal laptop or PC. When first creating a local copy of a remote git repository you can use the
git clone command. The actual url will depend on your username and repository, but for this repository this command would look like this:
git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:ZigaBrencic/new_developer.git
Once you have a local copy you will never have to call
git clone for this repository again.
You have at your disposal the following basic commands:
git pullpull new changes from the remote server to your local copy,
git pushpush changes from your local copy to the remote server,
git add <filename>add all changes in
git reset <filename>reverse
git commit -m <message>commit all changes that are in staging,
git checkout <commit>revert all files in local directory to what they were after commit
<commit>(be careful here you can loose uncommited changes you’ve made),
git statusview the current state of your local copy,
git logview the history of commits in this repository,
git diffshow all unstaged changes in your local copy.
Now let’s go back to our computer and creat a new project:
mkdir git_intro git init git remote add origin https://gitlab.ethz.ch/ziga.brencic/git_intro.git git add . git commit -m "Initial commit" git push -u origin master
$ git status # Make sure I have no local changes On branch master Your branch is up to date with 'origin/master'. nothing to commit, working tree clean $ git pull # Get new changes from remote server Already up to date.
$ touch new_file.txt # Create a new file $ git status On branch master Your branch is up to date with 'origin/master'. Untracked files: (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) new_file.txt nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
$ git add new_file.txt # Add new file to staging $ git status On branch master Your branch is up to date with 'origin/master'. Changes to be committed: (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage) new file: new_file.txt
$ git commit -m "Create new file" # Commit the changes [master 6b1ff71] Create new file 1 file changed, 0 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-) create mode 100644 new_file.txt $ git status On branch master Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master' by 1 commit. (use "git push" to publish your local commits) nothing to commit, working tree clean
$ git push # Push the new file into the remote repository Counting objects: 3, done. Delta compression using up to 8 threads. Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done. Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 315 bytes | 315.00 KiB/s, done. Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0) To https://gitlab.ethz.ch/ziga.brencic/git_intro.git 817f344..6b1ff71 master -> master
Sometimes you want to create a new branch of commits. Maybe to create a new feature or to fix a bug without disturbing the
master branch, which is the default branch name.
You can create a new branch with the command
git branch <branch-name>
You can switch between branches with the command
git checkout <branch-name>
Once you complete a feature or resolve a bug you might wish to port the changes back to the
There are two ways of joining branches; merging branches and rebasing branches.
git merge <branch-name> - merges
<branch-name> into the current branch and creates a so-called merge commit where it commits the different changes from both branches.
git rebase <branch-name> - applies the changes from
<branch-name> and then re-applies the changes of the current branch on top.
$ git branch new-feature # Create a new branch $ git checkout new-feature # Move to the new brach $ echo "Adding a line to README" >> README.md # Edit a file $ git add README.md # Add a file to staging $ git commit -m "Update README" # Commit the file $ git checkout master # Move back to the master branch $ git pull # Fetch the new changes on master $ git checkout new-feature # Move back to the new branch $ git rebase master # Join changes from master to the new branches $ git checkout master # Move to the master branch $ git merge new-feature # Merge the changes into the master branch